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Whenever you quote, paraphrase, summarise or otherwise use a source in your writing, you must indicate this by inserting a brief reference to the source at that point.
In the in text system, the brief reference is inserted directly into the text. This in text citation directs the reader to the full citation in the list of references, where full identifying information for the source is displayed.
In Australian style, the in text citation is made up of the author’s surname and the year of publication enclosed in round brackets (parentheses). If the author/s name is already part of the sentence, only the year is enclosed in parentheses.
The information in the in text citation is taken from (and should match) the corresponding parts of the full citation to ensure the reader is directed to the correct entry.
The early settlers were given very little support (Milne 1996). [IN TEXT CITATION]
Milne (1996) presents compelling evidence to refute this claim. [IN TEXT CITATION]
Milne, LG 1996, Media and modernity, Fontana, London. [FULL CITATION]
A basic Australian style in text citation is made up of author and year of publication. A page number (or other specific reference) is added when using a quotation from the source or when referring to a specific page or part of the source.
This section gives instructions on how to treat these parts (some examples are accompanied by their corresponding full citation where helpful). To help with explanation, shading has been applied to the particular part being discussed in each example.
For more examples, including variations to the basic treatment outlined below, see Examples of Australian style in text citations.
Give the author's surname (no first names or initials) as taken from the full citation (shown below the in text example).
(Milne 1996) ORMilne (1996) reported …
Milne, LG 1996, Media and modernity, Fontana, London.
Give the year of publication (as taken from the full citation, shown under the in text example) after the author. Insert a space but no comma between the author and the year.
(Seacombe 2001) OR Seacombe (2001) reported …
Seacombe, NJ 2001, Judgement, Liberty, Melbourne.
Page or other specific references (e.g., chapter, figure, table) are included in the in text citation when citing specific information from a source or when using quotations. Page references are unnecessary when citing a source in general.
If a page reference is needed, give the page number/s after the year (following a comma and a space). If citing a range of pages, give all digits of opening pages and as few digits of end pages as needed for clarity; e.g., 27-39, 301-4. Use ‘p.’ (for a single page) or ‘pp.’ (for a range of pages) before the page number.
(Jones 2002, p. 23) OR Jones (2002, p. 23) reported …
(Smith 2005, pp. 32-49) OR Smith (2005, pp. 32-49) reported …
Presented in this section are examples of in text citations set in Australian style. To help with explanation, shading has been applied to the parts under discussion.
These examples apply to all categories of material (print, multimedia and online) unless otherwise stated.
Insert the author and the year of publication (and page number if needed) directly into the text in round brackets (parentheses) immediately before the punctuation mark (e.g., full stop, comma) that ends the sentence (or part of the sentence) containing the quotation or information used. Separate the author and the year with a space (no comma).
The early settlers were given very little support (Milne 1996).
If the author's name is already part of the sentence, only the year (and page number if needed) is given in parentheses (the name does not need to be repeated).
Milne (1996) presents compelling evidence to refute this claim.
If citing multiple sources within parentheses, list sources alphabetically and separate by a semicolon and space. If citing more than one source by the same author at the same point, list by year of publication (earliest first) and separate years by a comma and a space.
This interpretation is common (Durham 2007; Jones 2006; Ling 1998, 2003).
2 or 3 authors: Give the surname of all authors in every mention in the same order they are listed in the full citation (shown below in text example). Join last author by '&' in parentheses, or ‘and’ in sentence.
(Lowi, Ginsberg & Jackson 1994)ORLowi, Ginsberg and Jackson (1994) …
Lowi, T, Ginsberg, B & Jackson, S 1994, Analyzing American government: American government, freedom and power, 3rd edn, Norton, New York.
4 or more authors: Give the surname of the first author named in the full citation (as shown below in text example) followed by ‘et al.’ in every mention. If the source shares a same-named first author with another 'et al.' source, add one or more authors as necessary in every mention to distinguish between the sources.
(Smith et al. 2002) ORSmith et al. (2002)
Smith, E, Brown, BB, Jones, C & Lennox, PD 2002, Business principles and ethical approaches, Newnham, Sydney.
Smith, Brown et al.DISTINGUISHES FROM Smith, Ling et al.
If citing a source by a group author (government/corporation/organisation), give the full name of the group as taken from the full citation.
(Amnesty International 1999) ORAmnesty International (1999)
If the group author has a long name or a name that is identifiable by its initials, give the full name (as given in the full citation) plus its initials in the first appearance (see top example, below), and use the initials alone in subsequent appearances (see bottom example, below).
(Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade [DFAT] 2003)ORDepartment of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) (2003)
(DFAT 2003) ORDFAT (2003)
Include a cross-reference in the reference list from the abbreviation to the full form.
DFAT see Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade
If citing sources by the same author with the same year of publication, distinguish between them by adding the lower case letter (‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc.) to the year (as per the full citation). The example below is for the fourth listing in the reference list (see full citation under in text example) by the same author with the same year of publication.
The example below is for the fourth source listed in the reference list under the same author with the same year of publication.
(Garland 2004d) OR Garland (2004d) …
Garland, EG 2004d, Mathematics in action, Paperworks, Ballarat.
If citing sources by different authors who share the same surname, add one or more initials (as needed for clarity) after the surname (separate by a comma and a space) to distinguish between the authors. Do this in all appearances.
(Crowe, D 1978) DISTINGUISHES FROM (Crowe, P 1999)
Crowe, DL 1978, Rudd and the Canberra elite, Penguin, Sydney.
Crowe, PR 1999, Biomedicine atlas, Rand, New York.
If the source has no author, give the first two to three words of the title in every mention to direct the reader to the full citation in the list of references (where it will be listed under title).
Format the title to match the full citation (i.e., italicise whole works; enclose articles in single quote marks).
(Getting sorted 2003) NO AUTHOR, WHOLE WORK
('Turnbull tirade' 1997) NO AUTHOR, ARTICLE/PART OF WORK
If citing a source that has no ascertainable year of publication, use 'n.d' to stand for the year (as per the full citation, shown under the in text example).
(Hartington n.d.) OR Hartington (n.d.) reported …
Hartington, P n.d., Health and happiness, Gresham, Adelaide.
If citing a work that is accepted for but not yet in the process of publication, use 'forthcoming' to stand for the year (as per the full citation, shown under the in text example).
(Greene forthcoming) ORGreene (forthcoming) reported …
Greene, LH forthcoming, Legislative courage, Lion, Berlin.
If citing a work that is in the process of publication, use 'in press' to stand for the year (as per the full citation, shown under the in text example).
(Treenham in press) ORTreenham (in press) reported …
Treenham, RT in press, Economics for beginners, Higham Books, Ballarat.
If citing a quotation that you have included within your sentence, add the page reference after the closing quotation mark (with or without author as relevant).
The description of Rice as 'a marketer's dream' (Ling 1998, p. 324) caused controversy.
Ling (2008) described Rice as 'a marketer's dream' (p. 324), which caused controversy.
If the quoted matter is a block quotation (i.e., set off from the rest of the text as a separate paragraph), add the page reference in parentheses after the concluding punctuation mark of the block quotation. If the author and year are not included in the preceding paragraph, give these in the parentheses with the page reference. (Note: Do not enclose block quotations in quotation marks.)
The tension between the different concepts of models and their implications in discourse and action is similar to one suggested by Kuhn (1970):
The proponents of competing paradigms are always at least slightly at cross-purposes. Neither side will grant all the non-empirical assumptions that the other needs in order to make its case. They are bound partly to talk through each other. The theoretical models and suggestions, and particularly pictorial models in this thesis are, thus, simplifying approximations put up for further consideration and refinement. (p. 148)
If citing material taken from another (secondary) source, mention the original work but give an in text citation (and full citation, as shown below the in text example) only for the secondary source. The original source is not cited as a source because it was not consulted directly. Introduce the secondary source by 'cited in' or 'quoted in', as relevant.
When Higgins admitted that he made a 'mistake of considerable proportion' (quoted in Seacombe 2001, p. 47), few people were surprised.
Seacombe, NJ 2001, Judgement, Liberty, Melbourne.